S. E. G. Lea, University of Exeter, UK

Publications (in chronological order)


1972 | 1973 | 1974 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989 | 1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | in press


S. E. G. Lea and M. J. Morgan (1972). The measurement of rate-dependent changes in responding. In R. M. Gilbert and J. R. Millenson (Eds.), Reinforcement: Behavioral analyses, pp. 129-145. New York: Academic Press.



I. Dennis, J. A. Hampton, and S. E. G. Lea (1973). New problem in concept formation. Nature, 243, 101-102.



S. E. G. Lea (1974). The non-occurrence of a stimulus as a signal. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 616-621.



S. E. G. Lea (1976). Titration of schedule parameters by pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 25, 43-54.

M. J. Morgan, S. E. G. Lea and D. J. Nicholas (1976). Choice of extinction-signalling stimuli by rats. Learning and Motivation, 7, 31-49.

M. J. Morgan, M. D. Fitch, J. E. Holman and S. E. G. Lea (1976). Pigeons learn the concept of an "A". Perception, 5, 57-66.



D. A. Graft, S. E. G. Lea and T. L. Whitworth (1977). The matching law in and within groups of rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 27, 183-194.

S. E. G. Lea and T. J. Roper (1977). Demand for food on fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 27, 371-380.



S. E. G. Lea (1978). The psychology and economics of demand. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 441-466.

S. E. G. Lea and S. N. Harrison (1978). Discrimination of polymorphous stimulus sets by pigeons. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 521-537.



S. E. G. Lea (1979). The art of being an experimental psychologist. New Universities Quarterly, 33, 167-176.

S. E. G. Lea (1979). Alternatives to the use of painful stimuli in physiological psychology and the study of behaviour. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals Abstracts, 7, 20-21.

S. E. G. Lea (1979). Foraging and reinforcement schedules in the pigeon: Optimal and non-optimal aspects of choice. Animal Behavior, 27, 875-886.

S. E. G. Lea (1979). Homeostasis, elasticity and reinforcer interactions. The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 1, 109.



S. J. Ceci, S. E. G. Lea and M. J. A. Howe (1980). Structural analysis of memory traces in children from 4-10 years of age. Developmental Psychology, 16, 203-211.

S. J. Ceci, S. E. G. Lea and M. D. Ringstrom (1980). Coding processes in normal and learning-disabled children: evidence for modality-specific pathways to the cognitive system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 785-797.

S. E. G. Lea (1980). Supply as a factor in motivation. In F. M. Toates and T. R. Halliday (Eds.), Analysis of motivational processes, pp. 153-177. London: Academic Press.



S. J. Ceci, M. D. Ringstrom, and S. E. G. Lea (1981). Do language-learning disabled children have impaired memories? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 159-162; 173.

S. E. G. Lea (1981). Inflation, decimalization, and the estimated size of coins. Journal of Economic Psychology, 1 79-81.

S. E. G. Lea (1981). Concurrent fixed-ratio schedules for different reinforcers: A general theory. In C. M. Bradshaw, E. Szabadi and C. F. Lowe (Eds.), Quantification of steady-state operant behavior, pp. 101-112. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

S. E. G. Lea (1981). Correlation and contiguity in foraging behaviour. In P. Harzem and M. D. Zeiler (Eds.), Advances in analysis of behaviour, Vol. 2: Prediction, correlation and contiguity, pp. 355-406. Chichester: Wiley.

S. E. G. Lea (1981). Animal experiments in economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 1, 245-271.

P.-L. Reynaud (1981). Economic psychology: Overview of methods, applications, and theory (Translated from the French by S._E._G. Lea). New York: Praeger. xxii + 216 pp.



S. E. G. Lea and R. M. Tarpy (1982). Different demand curves from rats working under ratio and interval schedules. Behaviour Analysis Letters, 2, 113-121.

S. E. G. Lea (1982). The mechanism of optimality in foraging. In M. L. Commons, R. J. Herrnstein, and H. Rachlin (Eds.), Quantitative analyses of behavior, Vol. 2: Matching and maximizing accounts, pp. 169-188. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.



S. E. G. Lea (1983). Substitutability, the form of indifference curves, and some pitfalls for a maximization paradigm. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 326-327.

S. E. G. Lea (1983). The analysis of need. In R. L. Mellgren (Ed.), Animal cognition and behavior, pp. 31-63. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

S. E. G. Lea and C. M. E. Ryan (1983). Feature analysis of pigeons' acquisition of concept discrimination. In M. L. Commons, R. J. Herrnstein and A. R. Wagner (Eds.),
Quantitative analyses of behavior, Vol. 4: Acquisition processes, pp. 239-253. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger

R. M. Tarpy, S. E. G. Lea and M. Midgeley (1983). The role of response-reward correlation in stimulus-response overshadowing. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35B, 53-65.

P. Webley, S. E. G. Lea and R. Portalska (1983). The unacceptability of money as a gift. Journal of Economic Psychology, 4, 223-238.



S. E. G. Lea (1984). Instinct, environment and behaviour. London: Methuen. xi + 148 pp.

S. E. G. Lea (1984). In what sense do pigeons learn concepts? In H. L. Roitblat, T. G. Bever and H. S. Terrace (Eds.), Animal cognition, pp. 263-276. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

S. E. G. Lea and S. M. Dow (1984). The integration of reinforcements over time. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 423, 269-277.

S. E. G. Lea and S. M. Dow (1984). Optimization and flexibility. The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 7, 110-111.

J. E. Roberts, R. M. Tarpy and S. E. G. Lea (1984). Stimulus-response overshadowing: Effects of signaled reward on instrumental responding as measured by response rate and resistance to change. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 244-255.

R. M. Tarpy, J. E. Roberts, S. E. G. Lea and M. Midgley (1984). The stimulus-response overshadowing phenomenon with VI versus FI reinforcement. Animal Learning and Behavior, 12, 50-54.

S. E. G. Lea (1984). Complex general process learning in nonmammalian vertebrates. In P. R. Marler & H. S. Terrace (Eds.), The biology of learning, pp. 373-397. Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen.

S. E. G. Lea (1984). Review of N. J. Mackintosh, "Conditioning and associative learning". British Journal of Psychology, 75, 538-539.



S. E. G. Lea (1985). Operant psychology and ethology: Failures and successes in interdisciplinary interaction. In C. F. Lowe, M. Richelle, D. E. Blackman & C. M. Bradshaw (Eds.), Behaviour analysis and contemporary psychology, pp. 43-51. London: Erlbaum.

S. E. G. Lea (1985). Optimality: sequences, variability, learning. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 343.



S. E. G. Lea & R. M. Tarpy (1986). Hamsters' demand for food to eat and hoard as a function of deprivation and cost. Animal Behaviour, 34, 1759-1768.

R. Brown, D. C. Earle, & S. E. G. Lea (1986). Not an alternative model for intentionality in vision. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 138-139.

S. E. G. Lea (1986). Review of A. Furnham & A. Lewis, "The economic mind: The social psychology of economic behaviour". The Manchester School, 54, 346-347.



S. M. Dow & S. E. G. Lea (1987). Sampling of schedule parameters by pigeons: Tests of optimising theory. Animal Behaviour, 35, 102-114.

S. E. G. Lea, R. M. Tarpy & P. Webley (1987). The individual in the economy: A textbook of economic psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. xxiv + 627 pp.

S. M. Dow & S. E. G. Lea (1987). Foraging in a changing environment: Simulations in the operant laboratory. In M. L. Commons, A. Kacelnik and S. J. Shettleworth (Eds.), Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, Vol. 6: Foraging, pp. 89-113.

S. E. G. Lea (1987). Animal experiments in economic psychology. In L. Green and J. H. Kagel (Eds.), Advances in behavioral economics (Vol. 1), pp. 95-116.



S. G. Ide-Smith, & S. E. G. Lea (1988). Gambling in young adolescents. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 110-118.

S. E. G. Lea, & M. Midgley (1988). Learning as a constraint on obligatory responding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 11, 459.

S. R. Hursh, S. E. G. Lea, & E. Fantino (1988). Behavior analysis and biological factors. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50, 359-360.



S. E. G. Lea, & M. Midgley (1989). La biologie de la monnaie. Communications de l'EHESS, 50, 121-136.

M. Midgley, S. E. G. Lea, & R. M. Kirby (1989). Algorithmic shaping and misbehavior in the acquisition of token deposit in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 27-40.

E. J. S. Sonuga-Barke, S. E. G. Lea, & P. Webley (1989). The development of adaptive choice in a self-control paradigm. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 51, 77-81.

E. J. S. Sonuga-Barke, S. E. G. Lea, & P. Webley (1989). Children's choice: Sensitivity to changes in reinforcement density. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 51, 185-197.

E. J. S. Sonuga-Barke, S. E. G. Lea, & P. Webley (1989). An account of human "impulsivity" on self-control tasks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41B, 161-179.



S. E. G. Lea & C. M. E. Ryan (1990). Unnatural concepts and the theory of concept discrimination in birds. In M. L. Commons, R. J. Herrnstein, S. Kosslyn, & D. Mumford (Eds.), Models of behavior, Vol 8: Behavioral approaches to pattern recognition and concept formation, 165-185. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

S. E. G. Lea, & R. M. Tarpy (1990). Extending the evolutionary and economic analysis of intertemporal choice. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 419-420.

C. M. E. Ryan & S. E. G. Lea (1990). Pattern recognition, 'updating' and filial imprinting in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus). In M. L. Commons, R. J. Herrnstein, S. Kosslyn, & D. Mumford (Eds.), Models of behavior, Vol. 8: Behavioral approaches to pattern recognition and concept formation, 89-110. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.

L. von Fersen, & S. E. G. Lea (1990). Category discrimination with polymorphous features. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 54, 69-84.

S. E. G. Lea, P. Webley, & B. M. Young (Editors) (1990). Applied economic psychology in the 1990s, Vols 1-2. Exeter: Washington Singer Press.

S. E. G. Lea (1990). Review of H. Rachlin, "Judgement, Decision and Choice". Times Higher Education Supplement.



S. E. G. Lea, D. J. Hessing, & A. J. MacFadyen (1991). Editorial: The Journal of Economic Psychology enters its second decade. Journal of Economic Psychology, 12, 1-4.

S. E. G. Lea (1991). Why optimality is not worth arguing about. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 225.

S. E. G. Lea (1991). Review of Gordon R. Foxall, "Consumer psychology in behavioural perspective". Journal of Economic Psychology, 12 (4) 1990: 544-7.



S. E. G. Lea (1992). Assessing the psychology of economic behaviour and cognition. In G. M. Breakwell (Ed.), The social psychology of political and economic cognition, pp. 161-183. London, Surrey University Press.

S. E. G. Lea (1992). Editorial. On parent and daughter disciplines: Economic psychology, industrial psychology and consumer science. Journal of Economic Psychology, 13, 1-3.

H. M. J. J. Snelders, G. Hussein, S. E. G. Lea & P. Webley (1992). The polymorphous concept of money. Journal of Economic Psychology, 13, 71-92.

S. E. G. Lea, P. Webley, & B. M. Young (Editors) (1992). New directions in economic psychology. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

S. Lea (1992). Perspectives on aggression. Review of P. Karli, "Animal and human aggression", and C. Zahn-Waxler, E. M. Cummings, & R. Iannotti (Eds.), "Altruism and aggression". The Psychologist, 5, 371.

W. Güth, K.-E. W„rneryd, & S. E. G. Lea (1992). Experimental economics and economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 13, 199-201.

P. Webley, & S. E. G. Lea (1992). Co muze nab¡nout ekonomick  psychologie? [Economic psychology in the market place]. Psychologie v Ekonomick‚ Praxi, 27, 63-75.



S. E. G. Lea, A. Lohmann, & C. M. E. Ryan (1993). Discrimination of five-dimensional stimuli by pigeons: Limitations of feature analysis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45B, 19-42.

P. Webley, & S. E. G. Lea (1993). The partial unacceptability of money in repayment for neighborly help. Human Relations, 46, 65-76.

W. H. Dittrich, & S. E. G. Lea (1993). Motion as a natural category for pigeons: Generalization and a feature positive effect. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59, 115-129.

S. E. G. Lea, P. Webley, & R. M. Levine. (1993). The economic psychology of consumer debt. Journal of Economic Psychology, 14, 85-119.

P. Webley, & S. E. G. Lea (1993). Towards a more realistic psychology of economic socialization. Journal of Economic Psychology, 14, 461-472.

W. H. Dittrich, & S. E. G. Lea (1993). Intentionality, mind, and folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 39-41.



S. E. G. Lea, & P. Webley (1994). Economic psychology: An introduction to a new interdisciplinary field. In P. Spurgeon, R. Davies, & A. Chapman (Eds), Elements of applied psychology, pp. 279-296. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood.

S. Watanabe, S. E. G. Lea, & W. H. Dittrich (1993). What can we learn from experiments on concept recognition in pigeons? In H. P. Zeigler & H.-J. Bischof (Eds.), Vision, brain and behavior in birds, pp. 351-376. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

P. Webley, & S. E. G. Lea (1993). The psychology of debt. Water Journal, 30(4), 22-27.



S. E. G. Lea, & R. W. Belk (1994). New developments in consumer psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15, 1-4.

S. E. G. Lea, S. Kemp, & K. Willetts (1994). Residents' concepts of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 21, 406-410.

S. E. G. Lea, R. M. Tarpy, & P. Webley (1994). Psychologie ekonomick‚ho chov n¡ (Trans. Z. Bures et al). Prague: Grada. 820 pp.

W. H. Dittrich, & S. E. G. Lea. Visual perception of intentional motion. Perception, 23, 253-268.

T. Troscianko, W. Dittrich, S. Lea, & D. Morgan (1994). Emotion from motion? Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 35(4) 1276. (Abstract).

S. E. G. Lea (1994). Rationality: The formalist view. In W. G�th & H. Brandst„tter (Eds.), Essays in economic psychology, pp. 71-89. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

S. E. G. Lea (1994). The evolutionary biology of economic behaviour. In W. G�th & H. Brandst„tter (Eds.), Essays in economic psychology, pp. 53-69. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

M. Beeson, & S. E. G. Lea (1994). Mature leaf chemistry of two afro-montane forests in relation to feeding by forest guenons (Cercopithecus spp.). African Journal of Ecology, 32, 317-326.

C. M. E. Ryan, & S. E. G. Lea (1994). Images of conspecifics as categories to be discriminated by pigeons and chickens: slides, video tapes, stuffed birds and live birds. Behavioural Processes, 33, 155-175.



J. D. Delius, M. Ameling, S. E. G. Lea, & J. E. R. Staddon (1995). Reinforcement concordance induces and maintains stimulus associations in pigeons. Psychological Record, 45, 283-297.

C. B. Burgoyne, & S. E. G. Lea (1995). The psychology of Christmas. The Psychologist, 9, 549-553.

S. Kemp, S. E. G. Lea, & S. Fussell (1995). Experiments on rating the utility of consumer goods: Evidence supporting microeconomic theory. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16, 543-561..

S. E. G. Lea, P. Webley, & C. M. Walker (1995). Psychological factors in consumer debt: Money management, economic socialization, and credit use. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16, 681-701.

E. Davies & S. E. G. Lea (1995). Student attitudes to student debt. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16. 663-679.



S. E. G. Lea, & M. Kiley-Worthington (1996). Can animals think? In V. G. Bruce (Ed.), Unsolved mysteries of the mind, pp 211-244. Hove: Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis.

M. Beeson, S. Tame, E. Keeming, & S. E. G. Lea (1996). Food habits of guenons (Cercopithecus spp.) in Afro-montane forest. African Journal of Ecology, 34, 202- 210.

S. E. G. Lea, C. Daley, P. J. C. Boddington & V. Morison (1996). Diving patterns in shags and cormorants: Tests of an optimal breathing model. Ibis, 138, 391-398.

W. H. Dittrich, T. Troscianko, S. E. G. Lea, & D. Morgan (1996). Perception of emotion from dynamic light-point displays represented in dance. Perception 25, 1996, 727-738.

S. E. G. Lea, A. M. Slater, & C. M. E. Ryan (1996). Perception of object unity in chicks: a comparison with the human infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 501-504.

H. M. J. J. Snelders, & S. E. G. Lea (1996). Different kinds of work, different kinds of pay: An examination of the over-justification effect. Journal of Socio-Economics, 25, 517-535.



S. E. G. Lea, & P. Webley (1997). Pride in economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 18, 323-340.

P. J. Citrynell, & S. E. G. Lea (1997). Surface behaviours of diving shags. Annual Reports of the Lundy Field Society, 47, 36-43.



J. D. Goss-Custard, J. T. Cayford, & S. E. G. Lea (1998). The changing trade-off between stealing and independent foraging in juvenile oystercatchers. Animal Behaviour, 55, 745-760.

W. H. Dittrich, S. E. G. Lea,  J. Barrett, & P. R. Gurr (1998).  Categorisation of natural movements by pigeons: Visual concept discrimination and biological motion.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 70, 281-299.

S. E. G. Lea & G. H. Kattan (1998).  Reanalysis gives further support to the “shotgun” model of Shiny Cowbird parasitism of House Wren nests. Animal Behaviour, 56, 1571-1573.



J. Waller, & S. E. G. Lea (1999).  Seeking the real Spain. Authenticity in tourism motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26, 110-129.

J. Waller, & S. E. G. Lea (1999). El busca de la Espana authentica?  El  papel de la autenticidad en la motivacion. Annals of Tourism Research en Español, 1, 60-81.

S. E. G. Lea (1999).  Credit, debt and crisis debt.  In P. E. Earl & S. Kemp, (Eds),  The Elgar Companion to Consumer Research and Economic Psychology, pp. 139-144.  Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

M. C. Corballis, & S. E. G. Lea  (1999).  Are humans special?  A history of psychological perspectives.  In M. C. Corballis, & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), The descent of mind (pp 1-15).  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

S. E. G. Lea  (1999).  The background to hominid intelligence.  In M. C. Corballis & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), The descent of mind (pp 17-40).  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

J. D. Goss-Custard, J. T. Cayford,  & S. G. Lea (1999).  Vigilance during food-handling by Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus reduces the chances of losing prey to kleptoparasites.  Ibis, 141, 368-376.

S. E. G. Lea, D. C. Earle, & C. M. E. Ryan (1999).  The McCollough effect in pigeons: tests of persistence and spatial-frequency specificity.  Behavioural Processes, 47, 31-43.

M. Bonn, D. Earle, S. Lea, & P. Webley (1999). South African children’s views of wealth, poverty, inequality and unemployment.  Journal of Economic Psychology, 20, 593-612.

S. E. G. Lea, & W. H. Dittrich (1999). What do birds see in moving video images?  Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 18, 765-803.

S. E. G. Lea (1999).  Economic psychology.  In A. Bullock & S. Trombley (Eds.), The new Fontana dictionary of modern thought (3rd edition), p. 251.  London: Harper Collins



M. C. Corballis, & S. E. G. Lea (2000).  Comparative-evolutionary psychology.  In K. Pawlik & M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), International handbook of psychology (pp. 347-361).  London: Sage

S. E. G. Lea (2000).  Making money out of psychology: Can we predict economic behaviour?  The Psychologist, 13, 408-412.

S. E. G. Lea (2000).  Towards an ethical use of animals.  The Psychologist, 13, 556-557.

S. E. G. Lea, & W. H. Dittrich (2000). What do birds see in moving video images?  In J. Fagot (Ed.), Picture perception in animals, pp. 143-180.  Hove: Psychology Press.



P. Webley, C. B. Burgoyne, S. E. G. Lea, & B. M. Young (2001).  The economic psychology of everyday life.  Hove: Psychology Press.

S. E. G. Lea (2001).  Anticipation and memory as criteria for special welfare consideration.  Animal Welfare, 10, S195-S208.

Guidelines for psychologists working with animals (2001).  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54B, 81-91.  [prepared by a committee under SEGL as Chair].

R. Chilvers, M. Colebourne, B. Grant, R. Oliver, & S. E. G. Lea (2001).  Vigilance in grey seals as a function of time since haul out.  Annual Reports of the Lundy Field Society, 50, 41-48.

P. Webley, R. M. Burlando, & S. E. G. Lea (2001).  Quali mercato per la psicologia economica?  In S. Zappala & G. Sorchielli (Eds.), Prospettive di psicologia economica (pp. 19-48).  Milan: Guerini.

A. J. Scott, A. Lewis, & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.) (2001).  Student debt: The causes and consequences of undergraduate borrowing in the UK.  Bristol: Policy Press.

A. J. Scott, A. Lewis and S. E.G. Lea (2001). Introduction.  In A. J. Scott, A. Lewis, & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), Student debt: The causes and consequences of undergraduate borrowing in the UK.  Bristol: Policy Press.

S. E. G. Lea, P. Webley and G. Bellamy (2001).  Student loans: The development of a new dependency culture?  In A. J. Scott, A. Lewis, & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), Student debt: The causes and consequences of undergraduate borrowing in the UK.  Bristol: Policy Press.

G. Vicenzi, S. E. G. Lea and R. Rumiati (2001).  Student attitudes to debt: A cross-national study between Italy and the UK.  In A. J. Scott, A. Lewis, & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), Student debt: The causes and consequences of undergraduate borrowing in the UK.  Bristol: Policy Press.

A. J. Scott, A. Lewis and S. E.G. Lea (2001). Summing up: Theoretical and policy implications.  In A. J. Scott, A. Lewis, & S. E. G. Lea (Eds.), Student debt: The causes and consequences of undergraduate borrowing in the UK.  Bristol: Policy Press.

S. E. G. Lea (2001).  Two unconventional approaches to the future of economics: Ecological economics and economic psychology.  World Futures, 36, 351-367.

S. E. G. Lea (2001).  Decision and choice: Economic psychology.  In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, pp 3284-3286.  Amsterdam: Elsevier.



S. Lea, C. Burgoyne, P. Webley, and B. Young (2002).  Action plan: The economy.  The Psychologist, 15, 18-20.

R Nagarajan, J. D., Goss-Custard and S. E. G. Lea (2002).   Oystercatchers use colour preference to achieve longer term optimality.  Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B (Biological Sciences), 269, 523-528.

R. Nagarajan, S. E. G. Lea and J. D. Goss-Custard (2002).  Re-evaluation of mussel (Mytilus edulis) selection patterns by European Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus).  Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 846-853.

R. Nagarajan, S. E. G. Lea, and J. D. Goss-Custard (2002).  Mussel valve discrimination and strategies used in valve discrimination by oystercatchers Haemotopus ostralegus.  Functional Ecology, 16, 339-345.

K. Goto, S. E. G. Lea, and W. H. Dittrich (2002).  Discrimination of intentional and random motion paths by pigeons.  Animal Cognition, 5, 119-127.



S. E. G. Lea (2003).  Two unconventional approaches to the future of economics: Ecological economics and economic psychology.   In S. Dovers, D. I. Stern, & M. D. Young (Eds.), New directions in ecological economics.  Cheltenham: Elgar.

K. Goto, and S. E. G. Lea (2003).  Discrimination of direction of movements in pigeons following previous experience of motion/static discrimination.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 80, 29-42.


M. C. Corballis, and S. E. G. Lea (2004).  The psychology of Homo sapiens: Changing comparative perspectives.  In T. C. Dalton and R. Evans (Eds.), The life cycle of psychological ideas, pp.155-172.  New York: Kluwer.

K. Goto, A. J. Wills and S. E. G. Lea (2004).  Global-feature classification can be acquired more rapidly than local-feature classification in both humans and pigeons.  Animal Cognition, 7, 109-113.

N. Ghosh, S. E. G. Lea, and M. Noury (2004).  Transfer to intermediate forms following concept discrimination by pigeons: Chimeras and morphs.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 82, 125-141.

A. J. Mewse, J. R. Eiser, A. M. Slater, and S. E. G. Lea (2004).  The smoking behaviors of adolescent friends: Do parents matter?  Parenting: Science and Practice, 4, 51-72.

P. Webley, C. B. Burgoyne, S. E. G. Lea, & B. M. Young (2004).  Psicologia economia della vita quotidiana.  Bologna: Il Mulino.  305pp.



B. Osthaus, S. E. G. Lea, and A. M. Slater (2005).  Dogs fail to understand means-end relationships in a string-pulling task.  Animal Cognition, 8, 37-47.

S. E. G. Lea, and P. Webley (2005).  In search of the economic self.  Journal of Socio-Economics, 34, 585-604.

L. Newson, T. Postmes, S.E.G Lea, & P. Webley (2005).   Why are modern families small?  Toward an evolutionary and cultural explanation for the demographic transition.  Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 360-375.


S. E. G. Lea, A. J. Wills, & C. M. E. Ryan (2006).  Why are artificial polymorphous concepts so hard for birds to learn? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 251-267.

S. E. G. Lea, and P. Webley (2006).  Money as tool, money as drug: The biological psychology of a strong incentive.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 161-209.

S. E. G Lea (2006). How to do as well as you can: The psychology of economic behaviour and behavioural ecology.  In M. Altman (Ed.), Handbook of Contemporary Behavioral Economics, pp. 277-296. Armonk NY: Sharpe.

S. E. G. Lea, K. Goto, B. Osthaus, and C. M. E. Ryan (2006). The logic of the stimulus. Animal Cognition, 9, 247-256.

R. Nagarajan, S. E. G. Lea, & J. D. Goss-Custard (2006). Seasonal variations in mussel, Mytilus edulis L. shell thickness and strength and their ecological implications. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 339, 241-250.

C. B. Burgoyne, and S. E. G. Lea (2006).  Money is material.  Science, 314, 1091-1092. (Summary, full text)


L. Newson, T. Postmes, S. E. G. Lea, P. Webley, P. J. Richerson, and R. Mcelreath  (2007).  Influences on communication about reproduction: The cultural evolution of low fertility.  Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 199-210.

S. E. B. Gibbs, S. E. G. Lea, and L. F. Jacobs (2007).  Flexible use of spatial cues in the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans).  Animal Cognition, 10, 203-209.

B. Wechsler, & S. E. G. Lea (2007).  Adaptation through learning: Its significance for farm animal husbandry.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 108, 197-214.


W. Wrapson, A. J. Mewse, & S. E. G. Lea (2008).  The psychology of poverty.  In J. Strelitz & R. Lister (Eds.), Why money matters, pp. 80-88.  London: Save the Children.

S. E. G Lea (2008).  Evolutionary psychology and economic psychology.  In A. Lewis (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of  Psychology and  Economic Behaviour, pp. 512-526.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

K. R. Jule, L. A. Leaver, & S. E. G. Lea (2008).  The effects of captive experience on re-introduction survival in carnivores: a review and analysis.  Biological Conservation, 141, 355-363.


Accepted for publication and/or in press

S. E. G Lea (in press).  Evolutionary psychology and economic psychology.  In A. Lewis (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of  Psychology and  Economic Behaviour.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

B. Wechsler, & S. E. G. Lea (in press).  Adaptation through learning: Its significance for farm animal husbandry.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science



Stephen Lea


University of Exeter
School of Psychology
Washington Singer Laboratories
Exeter EX4 4QG
United Kingdom
Tel +44 1392 264626
Fax +44 1392 264623




Document revised 25th April 2008