Animal cultures and cultural evolution
There is a set of notes to accompany
this reading list
& Wilson Chaps. 1, 3, 4 (The fourth step of evolution, The rules
of mental development, The social worlds of Homo). [very basic]
Dawkins, R. (1976/1989). The selfish gene. Chap. 11 (Memes: The
new replicators). ......Roboro etc.
Bonner, J. T. (1980). The evolution of culture in animals, Chaps.
8 (The evolution of culture [concluding summary chapter]) & 2 (Cultural
and genetic evolution). ......Roboro
Nishida (1987), Local traditions and cultural transmission, in Smuts
EITHER Passingham, R. E. (1982). The human primate Chap. 7 (Culture).
SB pp 168-175 of hardback edition (Tradition, culture
Durham (1978) in A. L. Caplan, The sociobiology debate. .......591.5SOC
Pinker, S. (1995). The language instinct, Chap. 8 (The tower of
Tooby & Cosmides (1992). The psychological foundations of culture.
In Barkow et al (Eds.), The adapted mind [this is very long
- dip into it and read the bits that seem to you most helpful rather than
trying to wade through the whole thing - the end part may be most relevant]
Evidence for cultural variation in animals
Note that we only have one copy of the Heyes & Galef book from which
several of the following references come. However, if you consult the abstracts,
you are likely to find alternative articles by the authors listed here.
Heyes, C. M. (1993). Imitation, culture and cognition. Animal Behaviour,
Laland, Richerson & Boyd (1996), Developing a theory of animal social
learning. In C. M. Heyes & B. Galef. Social learning in animals:
the roots of culture. .......156.315HEY TRC
Tomasello, M., & Call, J. (1997). Primate cognition. Oxford
University Press: New York. Chapter 9 (Social learning and culture).
Byrne, R. W., & Russon, A. E. (1998). Learning by imitation:
a hierarchical approach. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 20,
667-689. [A late draft is available on the web at http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/bbs/Archive/bbs.byrne.html]
McGrew, W. C. (1988). Culture in nonhuman primates? Annual Review
of Anthropology, 27, 301-28. .......P305A220
Huffman (1996). Acquisition of innovative cultural behaviors in nonhuman
primates: A case study of stone handling, a socially transmitted behavior
in Japanese macaques. In Heyes & Galef, see above.
Galef, B. G., & Whiskin, E. E. (1997). Effects of social and
asocial learning on longevity of food-preference traditions. Animal
Behaviour, 53, 1313-1322.
Avital, E., Jablonka, E., & Lachmann, M. (1998). Adopting adoption.
Animal Behaviour, 55, 1451-1459.
Green (1975), Dialects in Japanese monkeys... Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie,
304-314. .......from SEGL
West & King (1996). Synergy and songbirds, in Heyes & Galef, see
Krebs & Kroodsma (1980) Repertoires and geographical variation in bird
song. In J. S. Rosenblatt et al (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior
Mundinger (1982), Microgeographic and macrogeographic variation in acquired
vocalizations of birds, in D. E. Kroodsma & E. H. Miller (Eds.),
communication in birds, Vol. 2, pp. 147-208. [skip through tables etc].
Adaptive nature of culturally determined behaviour
Lefebvre & Giraldeau (1996), Is social learning an adaptive specialization?
In Heyes & Galef, see above.
Harris, M. (1977). Cannibals and kings, chap 12 (The origin of the
sacred cow - or another chapter to taste) .......301.2HAR (also SEd)
Harris, M. (1979). Cultural materialism. Chapter 3 (Theoretical
principles of cultural materialism). .......TRC
Crook, J. H. (1980). Evolution of human consciousness Chapters 6-8
(The behavioural elaboration of hunting hominids; Sociobiology and human
social evolution; Societal evolution. Read selectively) .......TRC/Roboro
Aitchison, J.(1981). Language change : progress or decay? especially
chapter 1 (The ever-whirling wheel: The inevitabilities of change) .....409AIT
Alexander, R. D. (1979). Darwinism and human affairs Chapter 2 (Natural
selection and culture. Read selectively) .......573.2ALE
Skinner, B. F. (1969), Contingencies of reinforcement, Chap. 2 (Utopia
as an experimental culture). .......150.19434SKI
Chagnon (1981) Terminological kinship, genealogical relatedness, and village
fission among the Yanomamö Indians, in R. D. Alexander & D. W.
Tinkle, Natural selection and social behavior (skip through details).
Explicit sociobiology of human cultures
Lumsden, C. J. & Wilson, E. O. (1981). Genes, mind and culture
Chap. 8 .......591.5LUM
Barkow (1992), Beneath new culture is old psychology. In Barkow et al (Eds.),
Winterhalder, B., & Smith, E. A. (1981). Hunter-gatherer foraging
strategies, esp. chap 6 .......301.2HUN
Martin (1983), review of Winterhalder & Smith. American Anthropologist,
Hayden (1981) Subsistence and ecological adaptations of modern hunter/gatherers,
in R. S. O. Harding & G. Teleki (Eds.), Omnivorous primates
Harako (1981) The cultural ecology of hunting among Mbuti pygmies in the
Ituri forest, Zaire, in Harding & Teleki.
Hinde & Barden (1985), The evolution of the teddy bear. Animal Behaviour,
33, 1371-1373 .......BJ
Questions for discussion
Do the animal data support Dawkins' meme theory of cultural evolution?
On the whole, are culturally determined behaviours adaptive?
If adaptiveness does not determine what cultures and/or culturally determined
traits survive, what are the true selective forces acting on cultures?
Are they different in humans and in other animals?
Could cultural evolution support group selection?
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Document revised 19th July 1999